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Chameleon

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Joined: 01/27/2005 11:46:50
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Here is some useless info related to my degree:

There are many factors which lead to stomata opening and closing. In case you don't know what a stomata is, it is basically a pore on a leaf and in some plant species, also on the stem. What is does is open and close to allow water vapor to escape out of the plant which then draws water up from the soil and into the plant (this whole process is an entire different discussion that I can go through if you wish). The opening also allows gases such as O2 and CO2 to escape and come in the leaf (this is also a different discussion). So, plants don't have muscle tissue like we do, so how do they open and close?

There is an endogenous rhythm (a biological clock). Stomata open during the day and close during the night. (Though certain succulents which are native to hot, dry conditions have a reversed rhythm to enable them to economise on water loss.) However, stomata continue to open and close on an approximately 24 hour clock (circadian = about a day) even when switched to continuous light. The phase of this opening and closure can be shifted (made to occur at other times of the day) by contol of the end of the dark period.

The water balance of a plant affects stomatal apperture. Wilting plants close their stomata. The plant growth regulator abscisic acid (ABA) seems to act as a mediator under these conditions. Water stress in the roots can transmit its influence to stomata in leaves by the signal of ABA.

Low concentrations of CO2 cause stomata to open. If CO2-free air is blown across stomata in darkness, their stomates open. High CO2 causes stomates to close.

Light causes stomates to open. The minimum light level for opening of stomates in most plants is 1/1000 to 1/30 of full sunlight, just enough to cause some net photosynthesis. Blue light (430-460nm) is nearly 10 times as effective as red light (630-680nm). The wavelengths that are effective in the red part of the spectrum are the same as those that are effective in photosynthesis ie is absorbed by chlorophyll. However, the blue light effect is quite independent of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis will change intercellular CO2 concentrations and may have its effect through the above.

Blue-light wavelengths of daylight, detected by zeaxanthin (a carotenoid) activate proton pumps in the guard cell membranes, which proceed to extrude protons from the cytoplasm of the cell; this creates a "proton motive force" (an electrochemical gradient across the membrane) which opens voltage operated channels in the membrane, allowing positive K ions to flow passively into the cell, from the surrounding tissues. Chloride ions also enter the cell, with their movement coupled to the re-entry of some of the extruded protons (Cl/H symport) to act as a counter-ions to the potassium. Water passively follows these ions into the guard cells, and as their tugidity increases so the stomatal pore opens, in the morning. As the day progresses the osmotic role of potassium is supplanted by that of sucrose, which can be generated by several means, including starch hydrolysis and photosynthesis. At the end of the day (by which time the potassium accumulation has dissipated) it seems it is the fall in he concentration of sucrose that initiates the loss of water and reduced turgor pressure, which causes closure of the stomatal pore.

ABA also seems to trigger a loss of K ions from guard cells. Some workers suggest that in some species, ABA alters turgor pressure without changing solute potential or water potential.

There is evidence of a role for increased cytoplasmic calcium (Ca2+) in closure, possibly by effects on opening/closing of ion channels at the plasma membrane.

Starch break down to phosphoenol pyruvate (PEP) is stimulated by blue light. This PEP then combines with CO2 to fom oxaloacetic acid, which is converted to malic acid. It is H ions from the malic acid which leave the cell in the mechanism outlined above. Thus the intake of K ions is matched by formation of anions from malic acid in the guard cells. This causes an increase in osmotically active substances in exchange for the breakdown of starch in guard cells.


You bored of me yet?
In a nutshell, basically what is happening is the cells around the pores either increase with water or decrease with water which causes them to swell or not. This makes the opening bigger or smaller.

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Titanium.wombaT

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It's odd... Useless info often seems to be more mentally taxing than useful info... But for some odd reason we just crave it...

Heres a thought for you...

Coffee comes from coffee beans, which are actually the roasted pits of coffee cherries. Simple logic states that coffee must be a friut juice! Woohoo! Naturally caffinated fruit juice! Not to mention its loaded with vitamin C...and did I mention caffine? Yeah, thats in there too...

caffine goooood.....

cheers.

t.

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Hamish: "Your island"? You mean Ireland?
Stephen: Yeah. It's mine.
Hamish: You're a madman.
Stephen: I've come to the right place then!
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Spike

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cplmac wrote:
another interesting figure ,
49% of people have below average intelligence 



"Not all those who wander are lost" -J.R.R.Tolkien
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Spike

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So, if you want more water when eating a plant, harvest/eat it in the moring. If you want more flavor, eat it at dusk. Got it, Cham.

"Not all those who wander are lost" -J.R.R.Tolkien
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Chameleon

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Ok, time for today's useless info courtesy of my, uhhhh, degree:

How do Chameleon's change colors?
This is actually not 100% understood, but I'll tell you what is thought of right now. This is sort of a brief overview.

Chameleon's skin is pretty complex. There are several layers of cells and in each of these layers, there are pigment cells called chromatophores. The deepest layer has the melanophores which are the dark pigments. The layer up from this one has the guanophores which are the blue colorations. Above this are the xanthophores which are the bright colors like red and yellow. So, what happens is through the central nervous system, signals are sent to these cells where the pigment granuals are able to decrease or increase in concentration through a fiber like network in the skin. This basically makes the cells (color) larger and therefore 'seen' on the outside of the body. There are different reasons a chameleon changes color. It isn't really all about camoflauge as many think. Chameleons communicate to one another through color changes. In the wild, they have little territories. Male territories will overlap female territories, so when a male and female come across one another, you will get some really cool color changes, especially from the male. Same goes when two males come across one another. You will get some very vivid colors. Light has an effect as well. There is a light sensing organ on the top of their heads that basically senses light intensity. If you see a chameleon on a cold/cool morning, you will see them turn dark, laterally compress their body (flatten out increasing surface area), and point that side up towards the sun (heat). As you know, dark colors absorb heat more efficiently then light colors. So, this enables them to heat up quicker. Other things affect color change also. If they are startled, frightened, etc. they go through changes. It usually takes about 15 to 20 seconds to completely go through a color change. Anyway, I've talked enough and I'm blabbing now.

This is the same chameleon (female minor chameleon..isn't she cute by the way?!):



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Boingo_Babe

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It looks like her back has flattened out a bit in the second one. Is there a reason for that?

B_B

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Chameleon

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Boingo_Babe wrote:
It looks like her back has flattened out a bit in the second one. Is there a reason for that?

B_B 


That is the way the back is shaped. Their bodies are like that. If any of you get a chance, feel what their skin is like. It is actually very smooth and soft.

Hmmmm, what should I talk about next as part of my arsenal of useless information? I'll think of something cool, don't worry!

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Pyramidion

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very cool Cham, chameleons are fascinating, but I just like how they move their eyes... just so cool looking
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Chameleon

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Pyramidion wrote:
very cool Cham, chameleons are fascinating, but I just like how they move their eyes... just so cool looking 


What's interesting is that they don't need both eyes to catch prey. If you watch when they eat, they will turn both eyes towards the 'food' before they shoot the tongue out. You would think this is to get depth perception, right? Well, one of my chameleons had an infection in his eye (poor guy) which made his eye shut. Well, he was perfectly capable of catching food with just one eye. It is cool watching them constantly turn both eyes around in different directions, though. I love watching them. Chameleons are just soooo cool!

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emetakleze

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And now for something completely different.......


****"All those moments will be lost in time, like tears in rain."**** -Batty

****On a hot summer night would you offer your throat to the wolf with the red roses?****

***Though I cannot corrupt that which is by nature already corrupt, I can and do change the nature of the corruption***

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cplmac

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nice one eme

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Chameleon

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What happens if out of those three friends, all of them are unbalanced because, well, they are!!

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Chyster

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Chameleon wrote:
What happens if out of those three friends, all of them are unbalanced because, well, they are!!
 


Then the world stops turning, the universe splits open and everything we know as reality get sucked into an adjoining alternate dimension of pure chaos.

If at first you don't friccasee, fry, fry a hen.
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[BGE]Cha-Chi

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Well enjoy life while you can, I know I have atleast 6 that match the above catorgory. Sorry, I tried to pickem better but they keep following

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emetakleze

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lol!!

****"All those moments will be lost in time, like tears in rain."**** -Batty

****On a hot summer night would you offer your throat to the wolf with the red roses?****

***Though I cannot corrupt that which is by nature already corrupt, I can and do change the nature of the corruption***

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